ISSN 2070-7401 (Print), ISSN 2411-0280 (Online)
Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa


Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa, 2009, Issue 6, Vol. 2, pp. 217-223

Satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide in Russia

А.А. Тронин , С.Г. Крицук , И.Ш. Латыпов 
Санкт-Петербургский научно-исследовательский центр экологической безопасности РАН, 197110, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Корпусная, 18
Nitrogen dioxide is a highly toxic gas with 2 class of danger. Main source of NO2 are organic fuel
combustion with temperatures more than 1000 ºС. It is generated in forest, coal and peat fires and in small
amount in thunderstorms. Modern vehicles are responsible to the 80% of gas income into the atmosphere.
Gas concentrations can exceed 1000 mkg/m3 in cities, that much higher than maximum allowable
concentration. Current remote sensing systems allow to control nitrogen dioxide in atmosphere. Main
devises for gas measurements from satellite are SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and OMI on AURA satellite.
Daily Earth monitoring is impossible due to low spatial resolution and clouds. Monthly and yearly mean
values are reasonable for analysis. Large city agglomerations are clearly defined on the yearly mean data.
Mean nitrogen dioxide in Moscow district in 2007 г. was 722*1013 molecules/cm2, while in Archangelsk
one was 56*1013. Moscow city has yearly concentrations more than 2000*1013. The worst situation in the
world is in China. Satellite data analysis discover evident relations anthropogenic activity and nitrogen
dioxide concentrations. The spatial distribution of nitrogen dioxide is not uniform. Gas concentrations are
changed in two orders. Vertical profile of nitrogen dioxide is rather simple, more than 50% of gas spaced
between surface and 1.5 km, as all gas sources located on the Earths surface. Data analysis also indicates
significant gas transfer, which can be the base for transboundary gas transport modeling.
Keywords: nitrogen dioxide, satellite observations, city agglomerations, vehicles
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