ISSN 2070-7401 (Print), ISSN 2411-0280 (Online)
Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa


Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa, 2021, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 277-291

Climatic changes in hydrometeorological parameters of the Caspian Sea (1980–2020)

A.I. Ginzburg 1, 2 , A.G. Kostianoy 1, 3, 4 , I.V. Serykh 1, 3 , S.A. Lebedev 3, 5, 6 
1 Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, Moscow, Russia
2 Space Research Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia
3 Geophysical Center RAS, Moscow, Russia
4 Moscow Witte University, Moscow, Russia
5 Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Russia
6 National Research University of Electronic Technology, Zelenograd, Moscow, Russia
Accepted: 15.09.2021
DOI: 10.21046/2070-7401-2021-18-5-277-291
Reanalyses and remote sensing data of the Earth, as well as information from well-known publications of recent years, were used to study interannual changes and assess linear trends in hydrometeorological parameters of the Caspian Sea (without the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay): near-surface air temperature (SAT), sea surface temperature (SST), ice cover and level — in the period from 1980/1982 to 2020. In the 2000s, in comparison with the 1980s and 1990s, the maximum summer and minimum winter mean monthly values of SAT and SST increased, the number of mild winters increased. Trend of SAT of the Caspian region in the period 1980–2020 was +0.030 °C /year, the trends of the average annual SST in 1982–2020 in the North, Middle, South Caspian and in the sea as a whole were +0.026, +0.042, +0.034 and +0.035 °C/year, respectively. The greatest warming of waters took place in the western part of the Middle Caspian, the least one was in the northeast of the North Caspian and along the shelf zone of Turkmenistan. Decrease in trends in SAT and SST in the period from 1980/1982 to 2020 in comparison with the previous period (from 1980–1982 until about 2010) and the absence of an increase in the average annual SST values after 2010 indicate a slowdown in the warming of the Caspian Sea in the second decade of the 2000s. Trends in the monthly mean and average for the cold half-year (November – April) ice concentration in the North Caspian in 1980–2020 turned out to be negative (–0.8 and –1.24 %/10 years, respectively). Sea level after 2005, with the exception of a brief stabilization in 2015–2017, continues to fall. Average rate of level fall in the 28-year period 1993–2020 was –5.37±1.24 cm/year. By the end of 2020, it reached a mark of –28.5 m by the Baltic System of Heights, and only 0.5 m separates it from the 1977 minimum.
Keywords: Caspian Sea, sea level, air temperature, sea surface temperature, ice cover, interannual variability, global warming
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