ISSN 2070-7401 (Print), ISSN 2411-0280 (Online)
Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa


Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa, 2017, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 185-199

Hydrological monitoring in rivers by dual-frequency precipitation radar data: first results

V.Yu. Karaev 1 , M.A. Panfilova 1 , Eu.M. Meshkov 1 , Yu.A. Titchenko 1 , G.N. Balandina 1 , Z.V. Andreeva 2 
1 Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia
2 State Research Center "Planeta", Moscow, Russia
Accepted: 30.11.2016
DOI: 10.21046/2070-7401-2017-14-1-185-199
Flood monitoring and forecasting are the key challenges to ensure the safety of the population. Modern space-borne instruments significantly extend the capabilities of the terrestrial hydrological network, as they enable one to perform measurements over large areas. In 2014, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency launched space-borne dual-frequency precipitation radar and thus scientists got a new radar tool for studying the Earth. A software for processing and analyzing the precipitation radar was developed. Precipitation radar measurements made over the Russia land were processed for the first time. The region of the Khabarovsk Territory along the Amur stretch from the Mariinskoye village to the mouth of the river was chosen as a test area, and the spring flood of 2015 was examined on Ku- and Ka-band data of a radar image. Contact measurements were carried out by the hydrological station in the Mariinskoye village. It is shown that the temporal dynamics, i.e., the transition from snow cover to spring flood and its termination, was traced in the radar image. In this case, no significant differences between the data in Ku - and Ka-bands are observed. However, the land relief leads to the dependence of the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) on the scanning direction, which complicates the comparison of radar data obtained in different orbits. Division of the studied area into parts and the accumulation of NRCS measurements at different angles of incidence and in different scanning directions for a year will allow creating a “passport” of an area that takes into account seasonal fluctuations, precipitation, etc., and use it in processing of new data. This will increase the accuracy of the interpretation of the observed effects and the information receiving rate.
Keywords: dual-frequency precipitation radar, normalized radar cross section, spring flood, hydrological monitoring in rivers
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