ISSN 2070-7401 (Print), ISSN 2411-0280 (Online)
Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa


Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa, 2016, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 29-38

Considering the methodology of building space monitoring constellation for forecasting natural and anthropogenic emergencies

O.A. Alekseev 1 , N.V. Razumova 1 , E.I. Tsadikovskiy 1 , A.D. Linkov 1 
1 JSC “Russian Space Systems”, Moscow, Russia
Accepted: 11.07.2016
DOI: 10.21046/2070-7401-2016-13-5-29-38
The article presents methodological, scientific, technical and economic aspects of creating space monitoring constellation for forecasting emergencies (SMCFE). This constellation represents a base to create integrated (ground, air and space) systems of warning about disasters (powerful earthquakes, forest fires and floods), and also about threats to the critically important technical objects.
SMCFE development methodology represents a system of approaches, principles, methods, rules and standards providing definition of SMCFE characteristics according to chosen criteria. Definition of outside and inside SMCFE characteristics in terms of effectiveness goals consists in a solution of reverse task against the solution of direct task – estimation of natural and man-made disasters forecast effectiveness in terms of stated inside and outside SMCFE characteristics. Main method to solve the reverse task is SMCFE syntheses, main method to solve direct task is its analysis. Solutions of the reverse and direct tasks in the methodological scheme of the SMCFE project design come down to solution of a number of interconnected private inverse and direct problems. Solution of particular problems of definition and assessment of internal characteristics of SMCFE is to receive and integrate results of solutions on definition and assessment of orbital and ground SMCFE components. Selecting orbital component of SMCFE involves synthesis of its orbital structure, determining composition of onboard specific facilities (OSF) to solve problems of space monitoring of emergency precursors and types of space platforms, as well as equipment distribution on the spacecraft constellation. Choosing the composition of onboard specific facilities for high-quality SMCFE solution targets is carried out on the basis of the existing types of OSF, requirements for perspective hardware, and results in forecasting development of OSF on forecasting monitoring satellite vehicle (SV). Choice of space platforms is made taking into account increasing trend of using small and micro satellites to meet challenges of monitoring and forecast of the nonlinear nature, of increase in the cost of spacecraft development by improving its mass-dimensional characteristics. Payback period of SMCFE, seeing discounting is gradually ensured by flexible investment policy, as well as implementation of technological reserve in the field of monitoring for emergencies forecast.
Keywords: space monitoring constellation, natural and man-caused emergencies
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