ISSN 2070-7401 (Print), ISSN 2411-0280 (Online)
Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa


Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa, 2016, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 119-134

Laser remote probing of freshwater reservoir with high phytoplankton concentration

V.N. Lednev 1 , M.Ya. Grishin 1, 2 , S.M. Pershin 1 , A.F. Bunkin 1 , I.A. Kapustin 3 , A.A. Molkov 3 , S.A. Ermakov 3, 4 
1 A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia
2 Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology State University, Dolgoprudny, Russia
3 Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
4 Volga State Academy of Water Transport, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

Accepted: 12.12.2015
DOI: 10.21046/2070-7401-2016-13-1-119-134

Express diagnostics of large freshwater reservoirs is of great interest for both scientists and local authorities especially within a summer period due to rapid growth of phytoplankton (so-called algal bloom). Points of interest include changes of natural ecosystems and fresh water supply quality control during algal bloom. Conventional contact methods are of high man-power consumption and remote probing methods are of high demand. Laser remote probing methods are of great interest in optic remote probing methods due to quality of the information provided. Laser technology progress resulted in a compact LIDAR systems development that could be installed on unmanned aircraft vehicle. Results of laser remote probing of algal bloom in south area of Gorky freshwater reservoir are presented. Compact Raman LIDAR system was installed on ship and a backscattered spectra of upper water layer were digitized along the ship route. The perspectives of laser remote probing for express diagnostics of alga types variations were demonstrated. Elastic and Raman scattering as well as chlorophyll fluorescence were quantified, mapped and compared with data acquired by commercial STD-probe installed at a depth of 0.3 m below water surface. A good correlation between laser remote probing results and STD-probe data for algae concentration was established. Accuracy of water temperature measurements by Raman OH-band profile was shown to be dependent on chlorophyll fluorescence spectra interference due to high phytoplankton concentration. The results of laser remote probing of algal bloom in freshwater reservoir promote development of compact LIDAR systems installed on unmanned aircraft vehicles for fully automatic measurements of water properties at large area.
Keywords: lidar, laser remote probing, ecological monitoring of freshwater areas, water reservoirs eutrophication, multi-sensor measurements
Full text


  1. Ermakov S.A., Kapustin I.A., Lazareva T.N., Sergievskaya I.A., Andriyanova N.V., O vozmozhnostyakh radiolokatsionnoi diagnostiki zon evtrofirovaniya vodoemov (On the possibilities of radar probing of eutrophication zones in water reservoirs), Izvestiya Rossiiskoi akademii nauk. Fizika atmosfery i okeana, 2013, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 336–343.
  2. Lavrova O.Yu., Kostyanoi A.G., Lebedev S.A., Mityagina M.I., Ginzburg A.I., Sheremet N.A., Kompleksnyi sputnikovyi monitoring morei Rossii (Complex satellite monitoring of the Russian Seas), Moscow: IKI RAN, 2011, 470 p.
  3. Mityagina M.I., Lavrova O.Yu., Osobennosti proyavleniya na sputnikovykh radiolokatsionnykh izobrazheniyakh korabel'nykh sledov v oblastyakh intensivnogo tsveteniya fitoplanktona (Radar manifestations of ship wakes in areas of intense phytoplankton bloom), Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa, 2014, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 73–87.
  4. Pershin S.M., Bunkin A.F., “Skachok” tsentra i shiriny ogibayushchei spektral'noi polosy KR valentnykh kolebanii O-H pri fazovykh perekhodakh pervogo i vtorogo roda v vode (“A jump” in the position and width of the Raman band envelope of O-H valence vibrations upon phase transitions of the first and second kinds in water), Optika i spektroskopiya, 1998, Vol. 85, pp. 209–212.
  5. Anderson D.M., Cembella A.D., Hallegraeff G.M., Progress in understanding harmful algal blooms: paradigm shifts and new technologies for research, monitoring, and management, Annual review of marine science, 2012, Vol. 4, pp. 143–176.
  6. Babichenko S., Kaitala S., Leeben A., Poryvkina L., Seppälä J., Phytoplankton pigments and dissolved organic matter distribution in the Gulf of Riga, J. Mar. Syst., 1999, Vol. 23, pp. 69–82.
  7. Barbini R., Colao F., Fantoni R., Fiorani L., Palucci A., Lidar fluorosensor calibration of the SeaWiFS chlorophyll algorithm in the Ross Sea, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 2003, Vol. 24, No. 16, pp. 3205–3218.
  8. Barbini R., Colao F., Fantoni R., Fiorani L., Palucci A., Artamonov E.S., Galli M. Remotely sensed primary production in the western Ross Sea: results of in situ tuned models, Antarctic Science, 2003, Vol. 15, No. 01, pp. 77–84.
  9. Barbini R., Colao F., Fantoni R., Palucci A., Ribezzo S., Differential lidar fluorosensor system used for phytoplankton bloom and seawater quality monitoring in Antarctica, Int. J. Remote Sens., 2001, Vol. 22, pp. 369–384.
  10. Becucci M., Cavalieri S., Eramo R., Fini L., Materazzi M., Raman spectroscopy for water temperature sensing, Laser Physics, 1999, Vol. 9, pp. 422–425.
  11. Brown C.E., Fingas M.F., Review of the development of laser fluorosensors for oil spill application, Marine pollution bulletin, 2003, Vol. 47, No. 9, pp. 477–484.
  12. Bunkin A.F., Klinkov V.K., Lednev V.N., Lushnikov D.L., Marchenko A.V., Morozov E.G., Pershin S.M., Yulmetov R.N., Remote sensing of seawater and drifting ice in Svalbard fjords by compact Raman lidar, Applied Optics, 2012, Vol. 51, No. 22, pp. 5477–5485.
  13. Bunkin A.F., Bunkin A., Voliak K.I. Laser remote sensing of the ocean: methods and applications, Wiley-Interscience, 2001, Vol. 5, pp. 150–195.
  14. Chekalyuk A.M., Demidov A.A., Fadeev V.V., Lapshenkova T.V., Lidar mapping of phytoplankton and organic matter distributions in the Baltic Sea, Laser Spectroscopy of Biomolecules: 4th International Conference on Laser Applications in Life Sciences, 1993, pp. 401–405.
  15. Dolenko T.A., Fadeev V.V., Gerdova I.V., Dolenko S.A., Reuter R., Fluorescence diagnostics of oil pollution in coastal marine waters by use of artificial neural networks, Appl. Opt., 2002, Vol. 41, No. 24, pp. 5155–5166.
  16. Dolin L.S., Luchinin A.G., Water-scattered signal to compensate for the rough sea surface effect on bottom lidar imaging, Applied Optics, 2008, Vol. 47, No. 36, pp. 6871–6878.
  17. Ermakov S.A., Kapustin I.A., Lazareva T.N., Ship wake signatures in radar/optical images of the sea surface: observations and physical mechanisms, Proc. of SPIE, 2014, Vol. 9240, 92400N.
  18. Fadeev V.V., Maslov D.V., Matorin D.N., Reuter R., Zavyalova T.I., Some peculiarities of fluorescence diagnostics of phytoplankton in coastal waters of the Black Sea, Available at: http//, 2000, Vol. 1, No. 01, p. 1.
  19. Fadeev V.V., Sysoev N.N., Fadeeva I.V., Dolenko S.A., Dolenko T.A., On the potentiality of using the fluorescence of humic substances for the determination of hydrological structures in coastal sea waters and in inland water basins, Oceanology, 2012, Vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 566–575.
  20. Hallegraeff G.M., A review of harmful algal blooms and their apparent global increase, Phycologia, 1993, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 79–99.
  21. Hoge F. E., Swift R. N., Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments, Applied Optics, 1981, Vol. 20, No. 18, pp. 3197–3205.
  22. Leonard D.A., Caputo B., Hoge F.E., Remote sensing of subsurface water temperature by Raman scattering, Applied Optics, 1979, Vol. 18, No. 11, pp. 1732–1745.
  23. Luchinin A.G., Light pulse propagation along the path: atmosphere – rough surface – sea water, Applied Optics, 2010, Vol. 49, No. 28, pp. 5059–5066.
  24. Measures R.M., Laser remote sensing: fundamentals and applications, Krieger, 1992, 524 p.
  25. Pershin S.M., Lednev V.N., Klinkov V.K., Yulmetov R.N., Bunkin A.F., Ice thickness measurements by Raman scattering, Optics Letters, 2014, Vol. 39, pp. 2573–2575.
  26. Pershin S.M., Bunkin A.F., Klinkov V.K., Lednev V.N., Lushnikov D., Morozov E.G., Yul’metov R.N., Remote sensing of Arctic Fjords by Raman lidar: heat transfer screening by layer of glacier’s relict water, Physics of Wave Phenomena, 2012, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 212–222.
  27. Pershin S.M., Bunkin A.F., Luk'yanchenko V.A., Evolution of the spectral component of ice in the OH band of water at temperatures from 13 to 99 C, Quantum Electronics, 2010, Vol. 40, No. 12, p. 1146.
  28. Raimondi V., Cecchi G., Lidar Field Experiment for Monitoring Sea Water Column Temperature, EARSEL Advances in Remote Sensing, 1995, Vol. 3, pp. 84–89.
  29. Richardson L.L., Remote sensing of algal bloom dynamics, BioScience, 1996, pp. 492–501.
  30. Rull F., Vegas A., Sansano A., Sobron P., Analysis of arctic ices by remote Raman spectroscopy, Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 2011, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 148–155.
  31. Seppälä J., Ylöstalo P., Kaitala S., Hällfors S., Raateoja M., Maunula P., Ship-of-opportunity based phycocyanin fluorescence monitoring of the filamentous cyanobacteria bloom dynamics in the Baltic Sea, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 2007, Vol. 73, pp. 489–500.
  32. Soloviev A.V., Lukas R., Observation of large diurnal warming events in the near-surface layer of the western equatorial Pacific warm pool, Deep-Sea Research, 1997, Vol. 44, pp. 1055–1076.