ISSN 2070-7401 (Print), ISSN 2411-0280 (Online)
Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa


Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa, 2015, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 91-99

Surface microwave radiometric measurements of Lake Baikal ice cover

G.S. Bordonskiy1 , A.A. Gurulev1 , A.O. Orlov1 , P.Y. Lukyanov1 , S.V. Tsyrenzhapov1 
1 Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology SB RAS, Chita, Russia
The interest in exploration of Lake Baikal ice cover by microwave methods is caused by the development of new SAR systems and also by the uniqueness of this lake. The radar (active) method is mostly used for this purpose at present, because of high spatial resolution of SAR images. However, the radiometric (passive) method of microwave remote sensing may provide new information about ice cover state in contrast to the active method. This is due to the fact that thermal radiation intensity considerably depends on ice wetness and state of intermediate layers at media boundaries. On the other hand, the intensity of backscatter is formed by object inhomogeneity whose sizes are comparable to radiation wavelength. The existing satellite passive microwave systems have very poor spatial resolution. in this paper, the possibilities of surface microwave radiometric measurements when placing the instruments on single-engine aircraft – ultralight trike and hovercraft are examined. These positions of the instruments made it possible to achieve close to SAR spatial resolution. The measurements of the microwave thermal radiation of Lake Baikal ice cover at the wavelengths of 3 cm; 2.3 cm and 8.8 mm were carried out. Spatial resolution, when implementing surface measurements, archived 1–20 m. The areas of ice pollution by waters of Selenga River and increasing plankton concentration near the lake shore were determined. When measuring at close wavelengths of 3 cm and 2.3 cm the areas of ice with structural inhomogeneities were determined by decreasing of correlation coefficient of brightness temperature. Radio brightness variations, which are identified by the inhomogeneity of thickness because of the inequalities of upper ice border, as well as areas with the lack of such inequalities, were observed. It is suggested to carry out observations of other different structural ice cover peculiarities, for example, areas of bottom gas liberation with the capture of gases into ice. Combined surface radiometric and satellite SAR measurements will make it possible to obtain more information about the state of the Baikal Region natural environment.
Keywords: microwaves, radiometric measurements, ice cover, ice structures, Lake Baikal
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